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The student who works much at any section of history finds many aspects which require more adequate treatment than they have yet received. THE DAWN OF DISCOVERY Early maps of the southern regions--Speculations as to Antipodes-- Discovery of sea-route to the East Indies--Discovery of the Pacific-- The Portuguese and Spaniards--Discovery of the Solomon Islands--Quiros at the New Hebrides--Torres Strait. THE DUTCH AND NEW HOLLAND Spain and the Netherlands--Cornelius Houtman's voyage to the East Indies--The Dutch settled at Java--The Duyfken in the Gulf of Carpentaria--Brouwer's new route to the Indies--Dirk Hartog in Shark's Bay--Discovery of Nuytsland--Leeuwin's Land discovered--Wreck of the English ship Trial--Tasman's voyages--New Holland. DAMPIER AND COOK Cessation of Dutch explorations--Policy of Dutch East India Company-- Dampier's first voyage to Australia in the Cygnet--His voyage in the Roebuck--Cook's voyages--Discovery of New South Wales--Botany Bay--Voyage of the Resolution--Popularity of Cook's VOYAGES. THE FOUNDATION OF Sydney Effect of the revolt of the American colonies--The problem of the loyalists--Stoppage of the transportation of criminals to America--Banks suggests founding a convict settlement in New Holland--Matra's plan-- Young's plan--Determination of Government to establish a settlement in New Holland--Pitt's policy--Phillip appointed Governor--Sailing of the First Fleet--Phillip rejects Botany Bay and selects Port Jackson-- Laperouse in Botany Bay--Phillip's task and its performance--His faith in the future--His retirement. THE CONVICT SYSTEM The New South Wales Corps--Grose and Paterson--Hunter Governor of New South Wales--Trading monopolies--System of transportation--The assignment system--Tickets of leave--Political prisoners--Irish rebels. GOVERNMENT AND GOVERNORS System of government--An autocracy--Hunter's governorship--His difficulties--Recalled--King's governorship--The rum traffic--Bligh's governorship--John Macarthur--His arrest and trial--Deposition of Bligh. Clarke's prognostications--Gold found in the Port Phillip district--Official disfavour of gold discoveries--Hargreaves's Discoveries--Ballarat-- Bendigo--Wonderful finds--Inrush of Chinese--The digging days--Digging licences--Riot on the Turon--Unrest at Ballarat--The Eureka Stockade--The miner's right--Gold-mining as an industry--Gympie--Mount Morgan-- Coolgardie--The Golden Mile--Broken Hill--The Burra. THE HEART OF THE CONTINENT Flinders's plan--George Grey's journeys--Eyre's journey to Central Australia--His tramp across the desert--Sturt's journey to the interior--Mc Douall Stuart reaches the centre--He crosses the continent-- Leichhardt's explorations--His fate--Mitchell and the Barcoo--Death of Kennedy--Burke and Wills--Angus Macmillan in Gippsland--Strzelecki--The Forrest brothers--Ernest Giles. QUEENSLAND Settlement at Moreton Bay--Its abandonment--The Gladstone Colony at Port Curtis--Separation of Queensland from New South Wales--The new colony proclaimed--Its boundaries--Bowen's governorship. THE NORTHERN TERRITORY Adjustment of boundaries--Queensland secures the Barklay Tableland--South Australia undertakes to administer the Northern Territory--Darwin founded--The overland telegraph line--Port Essington. DEMOCRACY AT WORK--(a) GOVERNMENT Free scope left to the colonies--The protection afforded them-- Napoleon III and his supposed designs on Australia--The Shenandoah incident--The ballot--Constitutional reforms--Women enfranchised--Elective and nominee councils--Cowper's quarrel with the Council in New South Wales--Mc Culloch's protection policy in Victoria--David Syme--The Victorian constitutional struggle--The Darling grant--Payment of members-- Black Wednesday--Reform of Victorian Council. DEMOCRACY AT WORK--(b) LAND, LABOUR, AND THE POPULAR WELFARE Immigration--Anti-Chinese legislation--First inter-colonial conference-- Land legislation--Torrens Real Property Act--Labour questions--Trade union congresses--Labour politics--Great maritime strike--The Labour Party--Wages board system--Education, 'free, compulsory, and secular'-- The Universities--Sea-routes and steam-ships--Railways and gauges. PAPUA AND THE PACIFIC A 'Monroe doctrine' for the Pacific--French annexation of New Caledonia--The New Hebrides--New Guinea--Captain Morseby's discoveries-- The colonies and New Guinea--Queensland's awakened interest--Gold discoveries--German intentions--Mc Ilwraith orders annexation of New Guinea--Action disavowed by British Government--Strong feeling in Australia--German annexations--Lord Granville's surprise--Kanaka labour--'Blackbirding'--Queensland regulates the labour traffic. THE MOVEMENT TOWARDS FEDERATION Lord Grey's proposal--The federal spirit--The Federal Council--Its limitations--Henry Parkes--Federal Convention of 1891--Defection of New South Wales--Corowa Conference--Convention of 1897-8. THE CONSTITUTION Responsible government and federation--The task of the Convention--Types of federal government--The Senate--The House of Representatives--Provision against deadlocks--The High Court--The Governor-General--Federal powers-- The name 'Commonwealth'--New South Wales and the constitution-- G. Reid's attitude--Referendums--Conference of premiers--The Bill before the Imperial Parliament--The Commonwealth proclaimed--First Parliament opened. THE COMMONWEALTH--(a) PARTIES AND PERSONALITIES The three parties--The Barton Ministry--Reid and the Opposition--Watson and the Labour Party--The White Australia policy--Kanaka labour-- C. Kingston--Conciliation and Arbitration Bill--First Deakin Government--Watson Government--The Reid-Mc Lean Government--Second Deakin Government--Retirement of Watson--Fisher leader of Labour Party--First Fisher Government--The 'Fusion' (Deakin-Cook) Government--Second Fisher Government--Cook Government--A ride for a fall--Dead-lock--Third Fisher Government--Hughes Government--The great European War. THE COMMONWEALTH--(b) THE WHEELS OF POLICY The federal capital--Choice of Dalgety--Choice revoked and Canberra finally selected--Papua and the Northern Territory--The Kalgoorlie to Port Augusta railway--The amendment of the constitution--The referendums-- Defence policy--The naval agreement--Compulsory military service--The Kitchener and Henderson reports--The new naval squadron--The AUSTRALIA-- The Sydney-Emden fight at Cocos. AUSTRALIA IN THE GREAT WAR Outbreak of war--The double dissolution--'The last man and the last shilling'--Third Fisher Government--The A. F--The Sydney-Emden fight-- Defence of the Suez Canal--The Dardanelles--The Gallipoli campaign-- 'Anzac'--On the Somme--Monash's Army Corps--Battles in France--The Palestine campaign--The Australian soldier--The split in the Labour Party--Conscription Referenda--The cost in men and money--The mandates-- The Bruce Government. FROM THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES TO THE SECOND WORLD WAR Events in Europe from 1919 to 1939--Soldier Settlement and Assisted Migration--The 'boom years' of the 'twenties--The Great Depression--The 'Premiers' Plan--The 'Lang Plan' and the 'New Guard'--Ottawa Conference-- Recovery from Depression--Dearth of Social Legislation--The Second World War. IMPERIAL RELATIONS AND THE AUSTRALIAN SPIRIT British colonial policy--Grey--Disraeli--'A person named Rogers'--'The crimson thread of kinship'--Colonial Conference of 1887--Second Colonial Conference--Preferential duties--The old colonial system and the new-- Soudan contingent--Australia and the South African War--Anzac--Race sentiment among Australians--Poetry and painting. Forbes also refused to certify an Act which was actually passed by the Legislative Council imposing a tax of fourpence per copy on newspapers; but his authority did not enable him to block another severe measure which made a second conviction for publishing a libel 'tending to bring into hatred and contempt the government of the colony' punishable by banishment for an undefined period.

In 1828 the Act was amended by enlarging the Legislative Council to a maximum of fifteen members, who were still to be nominated by the Crown; but they were now endowed with power to reject, by a majority, a proposal made by the Governor.

The first occupant of that office was Sir Francis Forbes, who had previously been Chief Justice of Newfoundland.

There were several instances of soldiers committing felonies in order that they might, as they believed, improve their lot in life by being convicted.

Emancipists could obtain grants of land and live independent lives, whilst soldiers were bound to duty and regulated by discipline.

It appeared to many soldiers in regiments stationed in Sydney that convicts, especially emancipists, were better off than they were.

The case which promoted the first conflict between the Government and the press illustrates a curious phase of life in the convict colony. Wentworth's Australian was a vigorously critical organ of opinion. His was the first Australian newspaper conducted independently of Government control, for the Sydney Gazette, which commenced in 1803, was a publication principally for the issue of official notices seasoned with scraps of general news. He wished to see the population increased, but he did not disguise his dissatisfaction with the present mode of Government; and he outlined, as necessary reforms, the programme which he was afterwards to promote with all the energy of his virile mind. But before leaving England he published (1819) a book about New South Wales, wherein he enlarged upon the abundant scope for settlement in the colony.This e Book is made available at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. Sudds apparently died from the shock of the ordeal.

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