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Here we present what is, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic investigation of genetic admixture between different European and Asian populations using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from 34 populations, including seven European groups (EUR), 9 Central or South Asian groups (CSA), and 17 East Asian groups (EAS) and one Tibetan group from Tibet Plateau.Based on statistical analysis using 4 Population Test (f, we detected gene flow between Europeans and Asians were prevalent for most populations including even those from west-northern Europe and East Asia which have been generally regarded as less admixed.Interestingly, we observed a North-to-South decline of European gene flow in East Asians, suggesting a northern path of European gene flow diffusing into East Asian populations.

As a result, based on phylogeny as Supplementary Fig.

S1, Dai from southern China could be considered to be a surrogate of ancestral EAS (Fig. Similarly, we applied our approach for each pair of EUR and found French holds the less genetic contribution from EAS than other EUR, and therefore can be considered as a surrogate of ancestral EUR (Fig. We assumed a Hybrid Isolation (HI) model for admixed Eurasian populations with ancestries from both EUR and EAS, as shown in Supplementary Fig. For each group of EAS, we assessed whether the statistic f), significantly deviates from zero (see Methods). Otherwise, the population should have entire EAS ancestry.

We have employed an approach based on f statistics for each pair of EAS, EAS, to compare the quantitative contribution they inherited from EUR (see Methods).

We can therefore choose the least-admixed EAS as a surrogate of ancestral EAS.

To study the signal of gene flow between West and East Eurasian populations (European and Asian populations in Table 1), firstly we performed Principal Component Analysis (PCA) both with and without respectively African populations based on 96,538 random SNPs avoiding high linkage disequilibrium.

We observed that some clusters of West and East Eurasians are slightly shifted towards each other, indicating potential admixture between them (Fig. There is a clear ‘cline’ between West and East clusters.These studies reported the Asian or American contribution in European populations.But the European gene flow in Asians has not been well studied yet.Several studies have revealed evidence of sub-Saharan African admixture among southern European populations but only rarely among northern European populations.Since ancestral populations predating admixture are unavailable, an alternative is to determine proper surrogates of ancestral EUR and EAS.The interaction between European and Asian populations has been historically influenced by many factors, including the political conditions created by great empires such as the Roman (31 BC–250 AD) and Mongolian empires (1207 AD–1360 AD) that fostered communication between European and Asian populations, and the famous Silk Road (206 BC) which acted historically as a commercial, religious, and cultural network interlinking the trade routes across the Eurasian landmass that connected East Asia with the Mediterranean and Europe.

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