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There are also reports of enforced disappearances of deserters or draft evaders (US , Sec. According to Human Rights Watch, prisoners frequently die from torture, disease, malnutrition, and other forms of mistreatment (2012).

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According to a news article published by the Eritrean Ministry of Information, there were 19,000 students in the 26th cohort of conscripts, who began their training at Sawa in July 2012 (Eritrea 23 July 2012).

According to the British Embassy in Asmara, local authorities may send letters to citizens who have not completed their military service to remind them of their obligation (UK 17 Aug. The British Embassy in Asmara indicates that such round-ups are not regulated by government policies or procedures and take place in different parts of the country (ibid.).

E, available at: 8 November 2017] This is not a UNHCR publication.

UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. According to Human Rights Watch, the majority of able-bodied adult Eritreans are on "indefinite, compulsory" active national service or on reserve (16 Apr. A fact-finding mission report published in 2008 by the European Parliament Committee on Development similarly indicated that military service "often extends over decades" (EU 11 2008).

War Resisters' International's database of prisoners of peace and conscientious objectors lists the names of 12 additional Jehovah's Witnesses who were put in detention between 20 for conscientious objection and remain imprisoned at Sawa and Meitir camps ([2012]).

explains that students who have family members who fought in the war of independence are sometimes allowed to serve five months or less in the military and are often placed in technical college for further education (US , Sec. Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted within the time constraints of this Response.

The same source indicates that apprehended national service evaders are subsequently sent to military camps (ibid., states that people have been beaten "severely" and killed during round-ups (US , Sec. Corroborating information for this statement could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

The authorities also set up roadblocks and checkpoints to find draft evaders and deserters (ibid., Sec. However, the University of Leiden researcher notes that ID, travel permits, and other documents are not provided to conscripts "on a clear and regular basis" (ibid., 103).

Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States. According to Eritrea's 1995 Proclamation of National Service, [ ] all Eritrean citizens from the age of 18 to 40 years have the compulsory duty of performing Active National Service [which] consists of six months of training in the National Service Training Center and 12 months of active military service and development tasks in military forces for a total of 18 months. 8) Sources report, however, that national service obligations are extended indefinitely (US , Sec. The law further states that beyond their "active" service obligations, citizens are "subject to compulsory service in the reserve army" until the age of 50 and can be recalled into service in cases of national mobilization, military training, human-made or natural disasters, and "other circumstances" (Eritrea 1995, Art. According to correspondence sent to International Crisis Group by a diplomat formerly based in Asmara, citizens can be recalled into service for various reasons, for example as punishment for trying to flee the country or for conducting "illegal business" (International Crisis Group 21 Sept. Similarly, Human Rights Watch reports that conscripts are recalled "capriciously" and "routinely" as punishment for "perceived dissent" (22 Sept. Human Rights Watch reports that, in practice, men are required to perform national service until the ages of 55 or 57, and women until the age of 47 (16 Apr. The US Department of State's indicates that the criteria for demobilization are "unclear" (, Sec. According to David Bozzini, an academic at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands who lived in Eritrea between 20 while researching the national service (2011, 95), national service is "fundamentally associated" with Eritrean citizenship and those who do not complete their service are deprived of basic citizenship rights (16 Feb. Similarly, Human Rights Watch indicates that Jehovah's witnesses, who practice conscientious objection to military service, have been "in effect stripped of their citizenship" and denied access to public services, official ID, and commercial licences (16 Apr. After the mandatory six-month military training period, conscripts are assigned to a year of military or civil work as part of their national service (Bozzini 2011, 96; AI 2 2011; Human Rights Watch 16 Apr. According to Human Rights Watch, conscripts to the national service can be assigned a wide variety of work but military assignments are the most common (ibid., 44).

Various sources indicate that Eritrea is a highly militarized country (Bozzini 2011, 97; International Crisis Group 21 Sept. Human Rights Watch reports that women in national service "frequently" experience sexual abuse and rape by military leaders, including their commanding officer (22 Sept. indicates that reports of rape at Sawa military camp are "common" (US , Sec. The same report states that "widespread mistreating and hazing" occasionally led to deaths and suicides of national service conscripts (ibid., Sec. Civil service may include labour for the state or for private firms owned and operated by military or political officials (Human Rights Watch 16 Apr. It may also include community work (Human Rights Watch 16 Apr.

Information obtained from Eritrean sources by the British Embassy in Asmara indicates that students who complete their final year are automatically assigned to military service, other national service work, or higher education (UK 17 Aug.

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